The Countryside Code

Respect, protect, enjoy

Respect other people:

  • consider the local community and other people enjoying the outdoors
  • park carefully so access to gateways and driveways are clear
  • leave gates and property as you find them

Protect the natural environment:

  • leave no trace of your visit, take all your litter home
  • be careful with BBQs, and don’t light fires
  • keep dogs under effective control
  • dog poo - bag it and bin it, or take it with you

Enjoy the outdoors:

  • plan ahead, check what facilities are open, be prepared
  • follow advice and local signs and obey social distancing measures

Download a summary of the Countryside Code to print.

Respect other people

Please respect the local community and other people using the outdoors.  Remember your actions can affect people’s lives and livelihoods.

Consider the local community and other people enjoying the outdoors

Respect the needs of local people and visitors alike – don’t block gateways, driveways or other paths with your vehicle.

When riding a bike or driving a vehicle, slow down or stop for horses, walkers and farm animals and give them plenty of room.  By law, cyclists must give way to walkers and horse-riders on bridleways.

Co-operate with people at work in the countryside.  Keep out of the way when farm animals are being gathered or moved and follow directions from the farmer.

Busy traffic on small country roads can be unpleasant and dangerous to local people, visitors and wildlife - slow down. Where possible, leave your vehicle at home, consider sharing lifts and use alternatives such as public transport or cycling. 

Leave gates and property as you find them and follow paths unless wider access is available

A farmer will normally close gates to keep farm animals in, but may sometimes leave them open so the animals can reach food and water. Leave gates as you find them or follow instructions on signs. When in a group, make sure the last person knows how to leave the gates. 

Follow paths unless wider access is available, such as on open country or registered common land (known as ‘open access land’).

If you think a sign is illegal or misleading such as a ‘Private - No Entry’ sign on a public path, contact the local authority.

Leave machinery and farm animals alone – don’t interfere with animals even if you think they’re in distress. Try to alert the farmer instead.

Use gates, stiles or gaps in field boundaries if you can – climbing over walls, hedges and fences will damage them and increase the risk of farm animals escaping.

Our heritage matters to all of us – be careful not to disturb ruins and historic sites.

Protect the natural environment

We all have a responsibility to protect the countryside now and for future generations, so make sure you don’t harm animals, birds, plants or trees and try to leave no trace of your visit.  When out with your dog make sure it is not a danger or nuisance to farm animals, horses, wildlife or other people.

Leave no trace of your visit and take your litter home

Protecting the natural environment means taking special care not to damage, destroy or remove features such as rocks, plants and trees. They provide homes and food for wildlife, and add to everybody’s enjoyment of the countryside.

Litter and leftover food doesn’t just spoil the beauty of the countryside, it can be dangerous to wildlife and farm animals – take your litter home with you. Dropping litter and dumping rubbish are criminal offences.

Fires can be as devastating to wildlife and habitats as they are to people and property – so be careful with naked flames and cigarettes at any time of the year.  Sometimes, controlled fires are used to manage vegetation, particularly on heaths and moors between 1 October and 31 March, but if a fire appears to be unattended then report it by calling 999.

Keep dogs under effective control

When you take your dog into the outdoors, always ensure it does not disturb wildlife, farm animals, horses or other people by  keeping  it under effective control. This means that you:

  • keep your dog on a lead, or
  • keep it in sight at all times, be aware of what it’s doing and be confident it will return to you promptly on command
  • ensure it does not stray off the path or area where you have a right of access 

Special dog rules may apply in particular situations, so always look out for local signs – for example:

  • dogs may be banned from certain areas that people use, or there may be restrictions, byelaws or control orders limiting where they can go
  • the access rights that normally apply to open country and registered common land (known as ‘open access’ land) require dogs to be kept on a short lead between 1 March and 31 July, to help protect ground nesting birds, and all year round near farm animals 
  • at the coast, there may also be some local restrictions to require dogs to be kept on a short lead during the bird breeding season, and to prevent disturbance to flocks of resting and feeding birds during other times of year

It’s always good practice (and a legal requirement on ‘open access’ land) to keep your dog on a lead around farm animals and horses, for your own safety and for the welfare of the animals.  A farmer may shoot a dog which is attacking or chasing farm animals without being liable to compensate the dog’s owner.

However, if cattle or horses chase you and your dog, it is safer to let your dog off the lead – don’t risk getting hurt by trying to protect it. Your dog will be much safer if you let it run away from a farm animal in these circumstances and so will you.

Everyone knows how unpleasant dog mess is and it can cause infections, so always clean up after your dog and get rid of the mess responsibly – ‘bag it and bin it’. Make sure your dog is wormed regularly to protect it, other animals and people.

Enjoy the outdoors and stay safe

Even when going out locally, it’s best to get the latest information about where and when you can go. For example, your rights to go onto some areas of open access land and coastal land may be restricted in particular places at particular times. Find out as much as you can about where you are going, plan ahead and follow advice and local signs.

Plan ahead and be prepared

You’ll get more from your visit if you refer to up-to-date maps or guidebooks and websites before you go. Contact local information centres or libraries for a list of outdoor recreation groups offering advice on specialist activities.

You’re responsible for your own safety and for others in your care – especially children - so be prepared for natural hazards, changes in weather and other events. Wild animals, farm animals and horses can behave unpredictably if you get too close, especially if they’re with their young - so give them plenty of space. 

Check weather forecasts before you leave. Conditions can change rapidly especially on mountains and along the coast, so don’t be afraid to turn back. When visiting the coast check for tide times at Easytide - don’t risk getting cut off by rising tides and take care on slippery rocks and seaweed.

Part of the appeal of the countryside is that you can get away from it all. You may not see anyone for hours, and there are many places without clear mobile phone signals, so let someone else know where you’re going and when you expect to return.

Follow advice and local signs 

Get to know the signs and symbols used in the countryside to show paths and open countryside. 

Public rights of way

Public Footpaths

Yellow arrow

Open to walkers and users of mobility equipment.

Waymarked with a yellow arrow.

National Trails


Open to walkers and users of mobility equipment. Some sections are also suitable for cyclists and horse-riders.

Waymarked with an acorn.

Wales Coast Path

White shell

Open to walkers and users of mobility equipment. Some sections are also suitable for cyclists and horse-riders.

Waymarked with a white shell.

Open Access Land

Brown figure

Open to walkers and users of mobility equipment.

Waymarked with a brown figure.

Open Access Land is mountain, moorland, heathland, down land and registered common land (mapped under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000) available for use without having to stay on paths.

End of Open Access Land

Crossed out figure

Marks the end of area-wide access, although other access rights may exist - for example, public rights of way.

Waymarked with a crossed out brown figure.

Canal Towpaths

Green arrow

Open to walkers, users of mobility equipment and cyclists.

Waymarked with a green arrow.

Public Bridleways

Blue arrow

Open to walkers, users of mobility equipment, cyclists and horse-riders.

Waymarked with a blue arrow.

Restricted Byways

Purple arrow

Open to walkers, users of mobility equipment, cyclists, horse-riders and horse-drawn vehicles.

Waymarked with a purple arrow.

Byways Open to All Traffic

Red arrow

Open to walkers, users of mobility equipment, cyclists, horse-riders, horse-drawn vehicles and motor vehicles.

Waymarked with a red arrow.

Unclassified Roads

Black arrow

Open to walkers, users of mobility equipment, cyclists, horse-riders, horse-drawn vehicles and motor vehicles.

Waymarked with a black arrow.

Permissive Trails

White arrow

Created for public use by landowner permission. User rights vary - check local signs.

Waymarked with a white arrow.

To report an environmental incident, call us on 0300 065 3000 (24 hours)

Related document downloads

Explore more